Hajar/Hagar adalah puteri Fir’aun

Kebanyakan kita menganggap bahwa Hagar atau dalam Islam dikenal sebagai Hajar, merupakan seorang budak atau hamba sahaya yang tak jelas statusnya sebelum dinikahi oleh Nabi Ibrahim (Abraham).

Hal ini ternyata keliru, karena menurut literatur Yahudi, Hajar justru seorang puteri dari raja Mesir yang dikenal dengan sebutan Fir’aun (disini bukan merujuk pada Fir’aun era Nabi Musa tetapi Fir’aun/Pharaoh tetapi Fir’aun dalam artian gelar yang diberikan kepada rajaraja Mesir kuno –dan memang eranya Musa jauh dari era Nabi Ibrahim hidup).

Mari kita lihat literatur Yahudi tersebut yang menyatakan bahwa Hajar merupakan puteri dari raja Mesir :

Composed in Middle-Age France (1000 CE). Commentary on the Tanakh written by Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi). Rashi lived in Troyes, France (1040-1105). Rashi’s commentary is an essential explanation of the Tanakh and resides in a place of honor on the page of almost all editions of the Tanakh. Over 300 supercommentaries have been written to further explain Rashi’s comments on the Torah. While quoting many midrashim and Talmudic passages, Rashi, in his commentary, states that his purpose is to present the pshat (contextual meaning) of the text.

Sumber : https://www.sefaria.org/Rashi_on_Genesis.16.1.1?ven=Pentateuch_with_Rashi%27s_commentary_by_M._Rosenbaum_and_A.M._Silbermann&lang=bi



שׁפחה מצרית. בַּת פַּרְעֹה הָיְתָה, כְּשֶׁרָאָה נִסִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשָׂרָה, אָמַר: מוּטָב שֶׁתְּהֵא בִתִּי שִׁפְחָה בְּבַיִת זֶה וְלֹא גְבִירָה בְּבַיִת אַחֵר:

שפחה מצרית A HANDMAID, AN EGYPTIAN — She was a daughter of Pharaoh; when he saw the miracles which had been performed for Sarah’s take he said, “It is better for my daughter to be a handmaid in this man’s house than be mistress in another man’s house” (Genesis Rabbah 45:1).


אולי אבנה ממנה לִמֵד עַל מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בָּנִים, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָנוּי אֶלָּא הָרוּס:

אולי אבנה ממנה IT MAY BE THAT I SHALL BE BUILDED UP THROUGH HER — This statement of Sarah teaches that a person who has no children is not firmly established (literally, built up: his name and future are not perpetuated) but is unstable (lit, demolished) (Genesis Rabbah 45:2).


אבנה ממנה בִּזְכוּת שֶׁאַכְנִיס צָרָתִי לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתִי:

אבנה ממנה I SHALL BE BUILDED UP THROUGH HER— through the merit that I admit her as a rival into my house.


לקול שרי לְרוּחַ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ שֶׁבָּהּ (בראשית רבה):

לקול שרי TO THE VOICE OF SARAI— to the Holy (prophetic) Spirit that was in her (Genesis Rabbah 45:2).


ותקח שרי לְקָחַתָּהּ בִּדְבָרִים אַשְׁרֵיךְ שֶׁזָּכִית לִדָּבֵק בְּגוּף קָדוֹשׁ כָּזֶה (בראשית רבה):

ותקח שרי AND (SARAI TOOK [HAGAR] — She took (won her over) by kindly speech saying, “Happy are you in that you will be privileged to consort with so holy a person as this” (Genesis Rabbah 45:3).


מקץ עשר שנים מוֹעֵד הַקָּבוּעַ לְאִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁהֲתָה עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים וְלֹא יָלְדָה לְבַעֲלָהּ, חַיָּב לִשָֹּא אַחֶרֶת:

מקץ עשר שנים AFTER [ABRAM HAD DWELT] TEN YEARS — the period appointed for a woman who has lived with her husband for ten years without having borne children to him when he is bound to take another.


לשבת אברם וגו’ מַגִּיד שֶׁאֵין יְשִׁיבַת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ עוֹלָה לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיַן (יב’ ס”ד), לְפִי שׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר לוֹ וְאֶעֱשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא לְאֶרֶץ יִשְֹרָאֵל:

‘לשבת אברם וגו [TEN YEARS] AFTER ABRAHAM HAD DWELT IN THE LAND OF CANAAN — As Abraham had been married to Sarah before he entered Canaan this statement virtually informs us that the period he dwelt outside the land was not to be included in the number of these ten years (Yevamot 64a), for the promise, “And I will make of thee a great nation” was made to him with the intention of being fulfilled only after he had come into the land of Israel.


ויבא אל הגר ותהר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה (בראשית רבה):

ויבא אל הגר ותהר AND HE CAME UNTO HAGAR AND SHE CONCEIVED from the first union (Genesis Rabbah 45:4).


ותקל גברתה בעיניה אָמְרָה שָׂרַי זוּ אֵין סִתְרָה כִּגְלוּיָהּ מַרְאָה עַצְמָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא צַדֶּקֶת, וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, שֶׁלֹּא זָכְתָה לְהֵרָיוֹן כָּל הַשָּׁנִים הֲלָלוּ, וַאֲנִי נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה (בראשית רבה):

ותקל גברתה בעיניה HER MISTRESS WAS SLIGHTED IN HER EYES — She said, “As regards this woman Sarai, her conduct in private can certainly not be like that in public: she pretends to be a righteous woman, but she cannot really be righteous since all these years she has not been privileged to have children, whilst I have had that blessing from the first union” (Genesis Rabbah 45:4).


חמסי עליך חָמָס הֶעָשׂוּי לִי, עָלֶיךָ אֲנִי מַטִּיל הָעוֹנֶשׁ; כְּשֶׁהִתְפַּלַּלְתָּ לְהַקָּבָּ”ה מַה תִּתֵּן לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי, לֹא הִתְפַּלַּלְתָּ אֶלָּא עָלֶיךָ, והָיָה לְךָ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַל שְׁנֵינוּ, וְהָיִיתִ אֲנִי נִפְקֶדֶת עִמָּךְ וְעוֹד דְּבָרֶיךָ אַתָּה חוֹמֵס מִמֶּנִי, שֶׁאַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ בִּזְיוֹנִי וְשֹותֵק (בראשית רבה):

חמסי עליך MY WRONG BE UPON THEE — The wrong done to me (חמסי)— the punishment for it I call down on you (עליך). “When you prayed to the Holy One, blessed be He, (15:2) ‘what wilt Thou give me, seeing that I go childless’, you prayed only on behalf of yourself whereas you should have prayed on behalf of both of us — then would I have been borne in mind (by God) together with you” (i.e. when you had the gift of a child it would have been “my” child also — not that of a strange woman). Besides this, you deprive me (חומס) of your protecting words since you hear how I am despised and yet you keep silent (Genesis Rabbah 45:5).


אנכי נתתי שפחתי וגו’ ביני וביניך כָּל בֵּינֶיךָ שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא חָסֵר, וְזֶה מָלֵא, קְרִי בֵיהּ וּבַנַיִךְ, שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה עַיִן הָרָע בְּעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל הָגָר וְהִפִּילָה עוּבָּרָהּ; הוּא שֶׁהַמַּלְאָךְ אוֹמֵר לְהָגָר הִנָּךְ הָרָה, וְהֲלֹא כְבָר הָרְתָה, וְהוּא מְבַשֵּׁר לָהּ שֶׁתַּהַר? אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד, שֶׁהִפִּילָה הֵרָיוֹן הָרִאשׁוֹן:

‘אנכי נתתי שפחתי וגו ביני וביניך I HAVE GIVEN MY HANDMAID etc… [MAY THE LORD JUDGE] BETWEEN ME AND THEE — Wherever this word “between thee” (masc.) occurs in Scripture it is written defective (i.e. without the second yod) whilst here it is written plene, therefore read it as וּבֵינָיִךְ (the fem form that corresponds to ביניך in our text — as though Sarah turned to Hagar saying “May God judge between me and thee”). Thus she cast the evil eye on Hagar so that she miscarried on this occasion. This explains what the angel said to Hagar, (16:11) הנך הרה “behold, thou wilt conceive”; but had she not already conceived and yet he announces to her that she would conceive? This therefore informs us that she miscarried in this, her first conception (cf. verse 11) (Genesis Rabbah 45:5).


ותענה שׁרי. הָיְתָה מְשַׁעְבֶּדֶת בָּהּ בְּקוֹשִׁי (בראשית רבה):

ותענה שרי AND SARAI AFFLICTED HER — She compelled her to work hard (Genesis Rabbah 45:6).


מזה באת. מֵהֵיכָן בָּאת? יוֹדֵע הָיָה, אֶלָּא לִיתֵּן לָהּ פֶּתַח לִכָּנֵס עִמָּה בִּדְבָרִים. וּלְשׁוֹן אֵי מִזֵּה: אַיֵה הַמָּקוֹם, שֶׁתֹּאמַר עָלָיו, מִזֶּה אֲנִי בָאָה?

אי מזה באת WHENCE CAMEST THOU? — He knew it, but he asked this in order to give her a starting-point so that he might converse with her. The expression אי מזה is to be explained thus: Where is (אי) that place of which thou canst say, “From this (מזה) have I come”.


ויאמר לה מלאך וגו’ עַל כָּל אֲמִירָה הָיָה שָׁלוּחַ לָהּ מַלְאָךְ אַחֵר, לְכַךְ נֶאֱמַר מַלְאָךְ בְּכָל אֲמִירָה וַאֲמִירָה:

‘ויאמר לה מלאך ה’ וגו AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER etc. (see also Genesis 16:10 & Genesis 16:11). For each statement (in these three verses) a different angel was sent to her, and this explains why in reference to each statement the phrase is used, “and an angel said to her” (Genesis Rabbah 45:7).


הנך הרה כְּשֶׁתָּשׁוּבִי תַּהֲרִי, כְּמוֹ „הנך הרה” דְאֵשֶׁת מָנוֹחַ:

הנך הרה BEHOLD THOU WILT BE WITH CHILD — when you return you will conceive, just as the same phrase הנך הרה (Judges 13:7) spoken of the wife of Manoah (where it certainly appears to be thou wilt conceive in the future).


וילדת בן כְּמוֹ וְיוֹלָדֶת וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ ישַׁבְתְּי בַּלְּבָנוֹן מְקֻנַּנְתְּי בָּאֲרָזִים (ירמיה כ”ב):

וְיֹלַדְתְּ בן AND THOU SHALT BEAR A SON — The word appears to be grammatically a combination of the perfect tense וְיָלַדְתְּ and the participle וְיֹלֶדֶת but it is similar in sense to וְיֹלֶדֶת (the participle); so, also, (Jeremiah 22:23) “O thou that dwellest יֹשַׁבְתְּ) in Lebanon, and art nestled (מְקֻנַּנְתְּ) in the cedars.”


וקראת שמו צִוּוּי הוּא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְזָכָר וְקָרָאתָ אֶת שְׁמוֹ יִצְחָק (בר’ י”ז):

וקראת שמו AND THOU SHALT CALL — This is a command, just as one would say to a man (וְקָרָאתָ), as (Genesis 17:19) “And thou shalt call his name Isaac”.


פרא אדם אוֹהֵב מִדְבָּרוֹת לָצוּד חַיוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיְהִי רוֹבֶה קַשָּׁת (בראשית כ”א):

פרא אדם A WILD MAN — One who loves the open spaces to hunt wild animals, as it is written of him (Genesis 21:20) “And he dwelt in the wilderness and became an archer.”


ידו בכל לִסְטִים:

ידו בכל HIS HAND SHALL BE AGAINST EVERY ONE — a highwayman.


ויד כל בו הַכֹּל שׁוֹנְאִין אוֹתוֹ וּמִתְגָּרִין בּוֹ:

ויד כל בו AND EVERYONE’S HAND AGAINST HIM — everyone will hate him and attack him.


ועל פני כל אחיו ישכון שֶׁיִּהְיֶה זַרְעוֹ גָּדוֹל (בראשית רבה):

ועל פני כל אחיו ישכון AND HE SHALL DWELL IN THE PRESENCE OF ALL HIS BRETHREN — his descendants will be numerous, (so that his territory must extend over that which his brethren have; cf. Genesis 25:18).


אתה אל ראי נָקוּד חֲטַף קָמֵץ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם דָּבָר, אֱלוֹהַּ הָרְאִיָּה, שֶׁרוֹאֶה בְעֶלְבּוֹן שֶׁל עֲלוּבִין:

אתה אל ראי THOU ART A GOD OF SEEING — The word is punctuated with a Chataph Kametz because it is a noun, and the meaning is “a God of seeing” — One who sees the humiliation to which people are subjected by others (Genesis Rabbah 45:10)


הגם הלם לְשׁוֹן תֵּימָה; וְכִי סְבוּרָה הָיִיתִי, שֶׁאַף הֲלוֹם בַּמִּדְבָּרוֹת רָאִיתִי שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם אַחֲרֵי רוֹאִי אוֹתָם בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם! שֶׁשָּׁם הָיִיתִי רְגִילָה לִרְאות מַלְאָכִים וְתֵדַע שֶׁהָיְתָה רְגִילָה לִרְאוֹתָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי מָנוֹחַ רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְאָךְ פַּעַם אַחַת, וְאָמַר מוֹת נָמוּת (שופ’ י”ג), וְזוֹ רָאֲתָה ד’ זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְלֹא חָרָדָה:

הגם הלום HAVE I ALSO [SEEN] HERE — This is an exclamation of surprise: “could I have ever imagined that here also — in the wilderness — I would see the messengers of the Omnipresent after I have seen them in Abraham’s house, where I saw them regularly!” You may know that she used to see them there regularly from this: That Manoah saw the angel only once and exclaimed, (Judges 13:22) “We shall surely die”, and she saw angels four times, one after the other, and she showed no fear (Genesis Rabbah 45:7).


באר לחי כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:

באר לחי ראי As the Targum takes it: the well at which the living angel had appeared to her.


ויקרא אברם שם וגו’ אַעַ”פִּ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע אַבְרָם דִּבְרֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ שֶׁאָמַר וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, שָׁרְתָה רוּחַ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ עָלָיו וּקְרָאוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל:

‘ויקרא אברם שם וגו AND ABRAM CALLED THE NAME [OF HIS SON] etc. — Although Abram had not heard the words of the angel when he said to Hagar “and thou shalt call his name Ishmael”, yet the Holy Spirit rested upon him and he called him Ishmael.


ואברם בן שמונים וגו’ לְשִׁבְחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׁמָעֵאל נִכְתַּב, לְהוֹדִיעַ, שֶׁהָיָה בֶּן י”ג שָׁנָה כְּשֶׁנִּמּוֹל וְלֹא עִכֵּב:

‘ואברם בן שמנים שנה וגו AND ABRAM WAS FOURSCORE AND SIX YEARS OLD etc. — This is written to Ishmael’s credit, pointing out that he was thirteen years old when he was circumcised (see Genesis 17:25) and yet he raised no objection.

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